Sensors and Transducers: Principles, Technologies, and Examples by D. Patranabis
Sensors and Transducers by D. Patranabis: A Comprehensive Guide
If you are interested in learning about the principles, characteristics, operating modes, technologies, and applications of various types of sensors and transducers that form the prime components of instrumentation systems, then you should definitely check out Sensors and Transducers by D. Patranabis. This book is a lucid presentation of all these aspects, covering both conventional and advanced sensor technologies. In this article, we will give you a brief overview of what this book covers, along with some examples, tables, diagrams, and FAQs.
Sensors And Transducers By D. Patranabis Pdf 14l
Before we dive into the details of different types of sensors and transducers, let us first understand what these terms mean.
A sensor is a device that detects or measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal that can be read by an observer or an instrument. For example, a thermometer is a sensor that detects temperature and converts it into a readable scale.
A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy into another. For example, a microphone is a transducer that converts sound waves into electrical signals.
Sometimes, the terms sensor and transducer are used interchangeably, but they are not exactly the same. A sensor is a type of transducer, but not all transducers are sensors. For example, a speaker is a transducer that converts electrical signals into sound waves, but it is not a sensor because it does not detect or measure anything.
Sensors and transducers are important for instrumentation systems because they enable the measurement, monitoring, control, and automation of various physical processes and phenomena. For example, sensors and transducers are used in automobiles, manufacturing, medical, and environmental applications.
There are many types of sensors and transducers, based on the physical quantity they detect or measure, the principle of operation, the technology used, the output signal format, and the level of intelligence. In this article, we will focus on six main types of sensors and transducers: mechanical and electromechanical, thermal, magnetic, radiation, electroanalytical, and smart and intelligent.
Mechanical and Electromechanical Sensors
Mechanical and electromechanical sensors are sensors that detect or measure mechanical quantities such as force, pressure, strain, displacement, velocity, acceleration, flow, etc. They usually work by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy or vice versa. Some examples of mechanical and electromechanical sensors are strain gauges, pressure sensors, flow sensors, etc.
A strain gauge is a sensor that measures the strain or deformation of a material due to an applied force or stress. It works by changing its electrical resistance as it stretches or compresses. A strain gauge consists of a thin metallic wire or foil attached to a flexible backing. When the material to which the strain gauge is attached deforms, the strain gauge also deforms, causing a change in its length and cross-sectional area. This change affects the electrical resistance of the strain gauge according to the formula:
R = ρL/A
where R is the resistance, ρ is the resistivity, L is the length, and A is the cross-sectional area of the strain gauge.
The change in resistance can be measured by connecting the strain gauge to an electrical circuit such as a Wheatstone bridge. The output voltage of the circuit is proportional to the strain experienced by the strain gauge.
Strain gauges are widely used in various applications such as structural engineering, aerospace engineering, biomechanics, etc. They can measure static or dynamic strains in different directions and magnitudes.
A pressure sensor is a sensor that measures the pressure of a fluid (liquid or gas) or a solid surface. It works by converting the pressure into an electrical signal that can be read by an instrument. There are many types of pressure sensors based on different principles of operation such as piezoresistive, capacitive, piezoelectric, optical, etc.
A piezoresistive pressure sensor is one of the most common types of pressure sensors. It consists of a thin diaphragm with embedded resistors that change their resistance when subjected to pressure. The change in resistance can be measured by connecting the resistors to an electrical circuit such as a Wheatstone bridge. The output voltage of the circuit is proportional to the pressure applied to the diaphragm.
A capacitive pressure sensor is another common type of pressure sensor. It consists of two parallel plates separated by a dielectric material such as air or oil. When pressure is applied to one of the plates, it causes it to move closer to the other plate, changing the capacitance between them. The change in capacitance can be measured by connecting the plates to an electrical circuit such as an oscillator. The output frequency of the circuit is proportional to the pressure applied to the plates.
Pressure sensors are used in various applications such as automotive engineering, industrial engineering, medical engineering, meteorology 71b2f0854b